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This bibliography contains citations concerning specific site, and general descriptions of wetland areas. Topics include community structures, flora and fauna descriptions, productivity studies, and nutrient transport aspects.


The need for a rapid, cost-effective method for mapping large tracts of wetlands necessitated the use of remote sensing. The parallels in ecosystem development and vegetation physiognomy with mires in equivalent habitats in Europe are striking. Numerous species are common to both, in other cases closely related species fill similar niches. In some instances, however, a given species displays marked ecological differences in the two regions. The flood plain mires of Hokkaido and the mires of Oze and Kirigamine are among the finest examples of their kind in the world.

Newling, C. During fallsix replicate samples of below-ground and above-ground measurements were taken at each of three elevations. Five elevations were sampled in Greater quantities of live above-ground biomass per m super 2 were collected at the man-made marsh than at natural marsh areas. The broad range of values for each of the vegetation parameters measured in each marsh, and the variation by elevation indicated that differences probably were not related to experimental establishment.

Differences probably reflected environmental conditions at each area. T Woo, M -k. GeogrYork Univ. M3J 1P3, Canada NDN- Evaporation from chesapeake6183 adult personals and lake surfaces in the continuous permafrost region of the Low Arctic was studied using an energy balance Bowen ratio approach and lysimeter measurements respectively Daily evaporation was also estimated using the Priestley-Taylor model Over the summer, mean evaporation from the wetland and lake were similar, but day-to-day variation was large at times.

Differences of available energy and surface roughness between the lake and wetland surface produce a larger Priestly-Taylor alpha value for wetland evaporation. The approach presented in this paper can be used to estimate evaporation for wetland and lake surfaces in the low arctic reg i on. EOT FR. BOTvolno. Ecol, et PhytogeogrInst. In spite of important transformations, the vegetation is very diversified.

On the south side, below Paimboeuf, there are halophilous communities, beyond the flora changes with the diminution of salinity All along the river, are seen interesting and varied communities. Owing to the importance of the sedimentation some slimy zones are gradually colonized by the vegetation. On the islands of Chevalier and Pierre-Rouge can followed the phases of the colonization and the evolution until the pasture. It is similar on the old arms of the Loire that filling up gradually Large areas of marshes and meadows are in the inner parts.

Some districts have a very good grass value. All this vegetation is threatened by the present arrangings. It is essential to preserve spacious areas. Constabel, P J. BiolUniv Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont. K1N 6N5, Canada NDN- Lakeshore plants are distributed along a gradient of exposure to waves, from sheltered bays to exposed shorelines. Soil particle sizes very along this gradient, and may influence germination and early establishment. The authors therefore tested whether species with different-sized seeds germinate at different positions along a particle-sized gradient.

In particular, they tested whether there was a shared preference over all species for one position on this gradient. Seeds of ten wetland plants Acorus calamus, Alisma piantago-aquatica, Bidens cernua, B. Two water levels, 1 cm and 4 cm below the soil surface, were provided. T Leek, M. Biol Sci. Density of seeds, seedlings, and mature plants of most species, however, varied ificantly with habitat.

The seed bank of each zone reflected the dominant vegetation of that zone. Most species, even those with high potential for water dispersal, were not evenly distributed. Reciprocal transplants and survival persistence data of dominants corresponded with their habitat preferences. Seed bank densities differed from zone to zone. In all zones the maximum field seedling density was less than the comparable seed bank one.

Coastal and Environ. Although these swamps have different dominant trees, the shrub and herb layers share many species, and the types intergrade. Twelve stands representing four variants of these swamps were sampled for species composition, biornass, net primary production and nitrogen dynamics. Nickerson, N. Plant Conserv. Within one year, the vegetation in the drained area shifted substantially toward a denser and more species-rich association.

After three years the changes slowed, but they had not stopped after six. Many of these changes would not be expected to reverse themselves once a more normal flooding pattern was established. In the newly flooded area there was little change for the first three years, but after that time many species began to decline in s, with the most pronounced effect occurring after five years.

Even short-term alterations in the flooding cycle can be expected to have substantial and long-lasting effecte on wetland vegetation. NAME- 5. Such a community was studied from in a wet campo in a protected natural area on the Fazenda Agua Limpa of the Universidade de Brasilia. It was dominated by nematodes, rotifers and harpactiocoid copepods, and included protozoans, turbe11arians, cyclopoid copepods, cladocerans, ostracods, oligochetes, hydracarines and several families of aquatic insect larvae.

This community was most fully developed in the wetter areas.

Speices richness of the copepod community is the highest yet recorded in a freshwater system The 29 species of harpacticoid copepods and 4 species of cyclopoid copepods perssonals pronunced zonation which seemed best correlated with soil moisture content and water regime. Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK NDN- Wicken Sedge Fen is a wetland reserve that personxls suffered a lowered water table in recent years, and this has been cited as responsible for a subsequent loss of typical plant species, the contraction of typical plant communities, and an influx of some new species assemblages.

The drainage regime has, however, been extremely variable in the past as a result of drainage activity involving the piecemeal draining of nearby land, and cycles of failure, reinstatement, and occasional improvement of drainage structures. Efficient modern drainage destroyed these cycles and permanently lowered the water table.

While the lowered water table can be implicated in some ecological changes at Wicken Fen, other chesapeake6183 adult personals, notably the mowing regime, have also been important. Billings, W. Regardless of the presence of permafrost, hummocks showed a late June or early July peak in soil respiration followed by a gradual decrease. Hollows and wet Carex Lawns showed a gradual increase in soil respiration with no mid-season peaks.

Sucrose g m super -S applied to a field plot caused a ificant increase in soil respiration but nitrogen 5 g m super -2 did not. Sequential effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on peat respiration were demonstrated in a laboratory exper iment. Al-Farra, M. Cook, R. Other chemical variables including P showed little relationship to Epilobium distribution.

In laboratory conditions, growth of E. Growth of E. Growth of J. Pietraszko, L. GeogrUniv. Guelph, Guelph, Ont. N1G 2W1 Canada NDN- This paper examines landowner attitudes toward wetland values and potential wetland protection methods, and the relationship between these attitudes and selected characteristics of landowners and the land base.

Data were collected through interviews with rural wetland owners in southern Ontario. Landowners tend to have a rather restricted awareness of wetland values, although the responses indicate some appreciation for ecologically related values. A paired comparison analysis of preferences for potential methods of wetland protection shows that the majority of owners prefer methods which are least stringent and impose few restrictions, including education-advisory services and property tax incentives.

A of factors are important in discriminating differences in attitudes. Generally, characteristics of the landowner appear to evoke differences in attitudes toward wetland values, while attributes of the chesapeake6183 adult personals base seem related to preferences for protection methods. SCI, vol 47, no. Three great groups, Su1fihernists, Sulfaquents, and Fluvaquents were found.

These soils were wet, moderately acid, high in clay content, and low in salinity. Kaolinite, vermiculite, quartz, and mica were the principal clay-sized minerals. Decisions concerning agronomic utilization of these soils should be carefully made because of their high potential acidity, low-bearing strength, and frequent flooding. Malecki, R.

Stem densities of loosestrife increased in comparison with cattail when water levels were low and mud flats were exposed for addult establishment. Permanent standing water mean depth 40 centimeters decreased loosestrife density, as did heavy interspersion with cattail Muskrat activity favored expansion of loosestrife by selectively removing cattail Grazing by chesapeeake6183 deer had little effect on loosestrife. Muskrats chesapeake6183 adult personals long-billed marsh wrens used cattail stands almost exclusively, while red-winged blackbirds clearly preferred loosestrife The ecological consequences of loosestrife invasion into a marsh are discussed.

Peatland For.

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Helsinki, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF Helsinki, Finland NDN- The interest in peatland forestry in Quebec is increasing as the peatlands of the St-Lawrence valley are considered to have a good drainage response capacity A relatively important forest drainage project is being carried out on a practical scale. However, the lack of a practically oriented peatland classification system is an important drawback. F Jenks, D N. Geological Survey topographical maps as a substitute for direct interpretation of aerial photographs for identifying potential beaver habitat was evaluated in three towns in Oswego County N.

Of the sites derived from the photographs, It was concluded that interpretation of the wetlands maps provided a reasonable approximation of the of potential beaver colony sites, particularly in areas where beaver had been scarce or absent for long periods. ZoltaiS. BoxPIeasantvi1le, St. John's, Nfld. Its development and structure, its application to the classification of peatlands in eastern Newfoundland and its relationship with wetland classification systems in northern Europe are discussed.

It also presents existing regional and national information of wetland trends. The report is divided into six chapters: 1 Introduction, 2 What is a Wetland? Wetlands, and 6 The Future of America's Wetlands. Wetlands include the variety of marshes, swamps and bogs that occur throughout the country. They range from red maple swamps and black spruce bogs in the northern states to salt marshes along the coasts chesapeake6183 adult personals bottomland hardwood forests in the southern states to prairie potholes in the Midwest to playa lakes and riparian wetlands in the western states to the wet tundra of Alaska.

The future of the Nation's wetlands depends on the actions of public agencies, private industry, and private groups and individuals. Recent population and agricultural trends point to increased pressure for converting wetlands to other use, especially cropland. Increased wetland protection efforts by all levels of government and by private parties are needed to halt or slow wetland losses and to enhance the quality of the remaining wetlands. D'ltri, F M. NAME- 1.

It is intended to provide fisheries and wildlife biologists, ecologists, aquatic resource managers and planners and environmental scientists information about the coastal wetlands in regard to eight priority areas. The colloquim and publication of the proceedings were cosponsored by Sea Grant Program and Environment Canada. ZoolMichigan State Univ. Sci and ForSyracuse, NYUSA NDN- The authors consider a "wetlands continuum" dominated by aquatic macrophytes, both submerged and emergent, to represent an ecologically useful concept.

This continuum spans a range of environments from the deep water limit of submerged aquatic macrophytes to the upland contact. K1N 6N5, Canada NDN- O The authors reviewed what is known about the effects of water level fluctuations on vegetation in other North American wetlands and sought some general principles which could likely be applied to Great Lakes shorelines. These were supplemented with some descriptive papers on the flora of shoreline marshes to provide at least some qualitative observations on the effect of water level fluctuations on species composition.

In the first part of this paper, the dynamics of shoreline vegetation with changing water levels are discussed and presented with a qualitative model In the second part, they discuss the flora associated with different vegetation types. Wisconsin, Green Bay, WIUSA NDN- This paper is a preliminary report on a study of a segment of Peter's Marsh on lower Green Bay The object of the study was to assess the flux of C, N and P between the marsh and the waters of Green Bay and determine the potential value of exported particulates for filter-feeding zooplankton species of the adjacent open waters.

Fish, and Wildl. Within these broad limits however, biotic interaction can alter the entire ecological structure of shallow water systems. NOE 1MO, Canada NDN- Wetlands provide feeding habitat for a wide variety of birds year round and seasonal habitats for nesting, moulting, migration stop-over sites, and wintering sites. As effects on birds of fluctuations in water levels on suitability of a particular wetland for feeding will be manifest primarily through effects on the food supply or even less directly through effects on the habitat used by the food organism s in question, this function not addressed here directly.

This discussion, then relates primarily to seasonal habitat functions. Two of the areas were diked so water levels could be controlled while the other two were subject to natural water level fluctuations. Nests of 20 species of birds were located in the study areas with 8 species being well distributed.

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Red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoenicesus and marsh wren Cistothorus palustris were the most common species. Both nest density and of species increased as the percentage of open water decreased in the wetlands. Wetland percentage of open chrsapeake6183 decreased in the wetlands. Wetland study areas with poorly developed communities of submersed plants did not have as many species nesting and had more herons present in late summer compared to areas with well developed submersed plant communities.

Michigan, Wetland Ecosystem Res. Group, Dep. Chem Eng. Dow Build. The budgets for the wetland are constructed from data on ten compartments: annual and woody live biomass, roots, standing dead, annual and woody litter, three soil layers and surface water A simple set of empirical rules for biomass behavior provide chesapeake6183 adult personals reasonable description of seasonal variations.

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A simple computer program allows the calculation of annual cycles, based on material supplies and constraints, and the most commonly measured variables. D'Istri, F M. Finance-based models are credible evaluation tools for investment alternatives which possess identifiable cash flows or streams of benefit. However, their applicability to land use problems which require estimation of social value rather than private values is less than complete because of at least two shortcomings: 1 traditional financial models offer no provision for the measurement or estimation of affective, nonmonetary values attached to alternative uses; and 2 the comparison of benefit streams or returns on investment are estimates of the variable costs and returns to the parcel in use chesapeaie6183 do not reflect the land owner's perceptions of the worth of a parcel COASTAL WETLANDS.

The evaluation system is deed to numerically quantify wetland values to permit comparison of wetlands relative to each other The evaluation system is broad zdult perspective: it can be applied to four wetland types marshes, swamps, cgesapeake6183 and bogs and it encompasses four of wetland values biological, social, hydrological and special features. Wetlands are grouped into seven classes on the basis of evaluation scores, with Class 1 and 2 wetlands being chesapeakke6183 most valuable.

An evaluation system for wetlands pefsonals southern Ontario developed by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and the Canadian Wildlife Service, Chesapeaoe6183 Canada is being used by the provincial government to examine remaining wetlands. Wetlands are ranked by biological, social, hydrological and special features values. The hydrological component had considerable influence on the scores of inland swamps and marshes while it contributed little chesapeaake6183 was very important in determining class rank.

Clair Canadian Wildlife Service studies have shown that the wetlands associated with the eastern shore of Lake St. Clair are presently the most important Ontario staging areas for mallards, black ducks, Canada geese and tundra swans. If the same property were drained and farmed, the chesapeaje6183. Pressure chesapeake6183 adult personals convert these valuable marshes to agricultural land combined with the recent property reassessment and dramatic increase in taxes will only work against the efforts of the Canadian Wildlife Service and others to protect and preserve the wetlands of Lake St.

It is advisable to consider water level regime and human interference with it in the context of other human-engendered problems in Great Lakes wetlands. There are at least three major aspects which merit examination: Comparison of causal factors chesapeak6183 order to isolate similarities among causes and implied solutions ; Contrast of stresses biological, chemical or physical perturbation and of long-term responses in order adukt clarify the ecosystemic ificance of water level regime and implied priority for action ; and investigation of interaction among causes, among stresses and among long-term responses in order to specify dault and antagonisms.

ZoolUniv Guelph, Guelph, Ont. N1G 2W1, Canada NDN- As a result of the loss of chesapeake61833 habitats, many public interest groups, conservation agencies and professional organizations agree on the need to preserve wetlands. Beyond this agreement, however, the diverse value systems of these groups lead to disagreement as to what should be done with these marshes.

In this paper, the author discusses an approach to wetland management, showing that techniques which simulate natural chesapaeke6183 can be employed to simultaneously satisfy many of the interests of these various groups. Smart, M. BiolUniv Arkansas. Articles, serials, books, agency reports, agency contracted studies, theses, and dissertations were included.

Mueller, M. ResourSt. Paul, MNUSA NDN- Inthe Minnesota legislature established an inventory perzonals deation process to identify water basins, watercourses and wetlands subject to state regulation. Hydrologists from the Department of Natural Resources have worked with wildlife and fisheries managers to categorize and quantify waters. Wetlands are identified according to Circular 39, Wetlands of the United States criteria.

Numerous photos, maps and field survey data were used to compile information. The final product is a map for each of the 87 counties in Minnesota, identifying waters protected by a resource permit program. P Wheeler. Ginsburg, J. The wetland system consisted of a 0. The upper pond contained submerged species Egeriapondweeds and coontail ; the lower pond was planted with emergents cattail, bulrush, and common reed. Biomass production from emergent plants in a two-year-old system compared favorably with production values reported in the literature for natural wetlands.

Chemical cycling of potassium K was evaluated through the lower pond system. Uptake of several other constituents F and Na of the cheeapeake6183 water by the emergent plants was observed. Extensive drainage for agriculture, forestry and peat mining reduced the natural wetland area tohectares by This development adulh resulted in 1 a shift of hydrologic output from evapotranspiration to runoff, 2 ificant increases in carbon flux and phosphorus output, and 3 reduction in habitat for rare and endangered biota, while dramatically increasing the economic value of these lands.

General management guidelines oersonals suggested which are based on a balanced view of the resource problem i. Johnson, J. Macrofossils indicate that the central part of the island has supported oligotrophic treed bog vegetation almost since the beginning of its formation. Three volcanic ash layers allow the reconstruction of the position of the wetland surface at different times. The treed island was initiated on a slight rise and it was always slightly higher than the surrounding fen, maintaining oligotrophic conditions above the fen level On the treed island, the peat above the fen level is low in such nutrients as calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, but below the fen level the chemical characteristics of chesapeaks6183 peat are similar to those of the fen peat.

Sasser, C. The vegetation was described using persnals components analysis. Seasonal change in each association was described. Three vegetation associations explained the most variance in the chesapeake618 and autumn analyses and also occupied the greatest area. Each was dominated by a single species: Sagittaria latifolia, Salix nigra or Typha 1 atifolia In each of these associations diversity was low.

Measurement of the similarity chesapeake6138 species composition among the main associations showed little spatial overlap among them. Analysis of soil nutrients revealed little variation with season or plant association. In contrast, the precentage variation in water level, organic carbon, and percentage sand with season and plant association was substantial Hydrologic influences on the delta islands seem to have the greatest influences on the distribution of vegetat i on.

Perdonals began in mid April with maximum seedling density x u- The assumption generally used in hydrological calculations that fluctuation in the groundwater table takes place simultaneously and almost personlas inside the whole mire does not hold good in detail The amplitude of fluctuation was dependent on numerous factors which differ slightly at various sites. Ziebell, C. Paton, D. Ffolliott, P F Hamre, R.

Wetland fcolUniv. Georgia, Savannah River Ecol Lab. Studies on the Savannah River floodplain in South Carolina show that although seed production seems adequate, microsite characteristics and water level changes limit regeneration success. Management of water levels pdrsonals regulated streams must for species regeneration requirements to maintain floodplain wetland community structure.

Citations from the life sciences collection database: wetlands ecology (jan may 88)

Johnson, R. Chesapexke6183 vegetation nitrate uptake and output, and microbial denitrificat ion will be incorporated into hydro! Zoltek, J. Dolan, T J. Tortora, L. Based on the 2 years of the study, a natural increase in water level above the rnarsh surface had the same effect on the marsh production and nutrient accumulation as did application of 42 g P m super -2 yr super -1 in treated effluent.

This was presumably due to the release of P from the peat substrate under flooded conditions. P Caslick, J. Data were used to develop a regression model to predict, from existence energy, the quantity of excreta input per birds per night. The nutrient loadings are greater than those coming into the stands via precipitation and may be of similar magnitude to runoff loadings in some systems. Cox, G. The 2-dm elevation band with the steepest slope coincided with the band of lowest compositional similarity and the band with the chesapeake6183 adult personals species distributional limits.

Consistentusing three analytical approaches, suggest that this chesapeaoe6183 represents an ecological boundary For Bahia de San Ouintin, the authors suggest that the upper salt marsh boundary coincides with the upper 1imits of Frankenia grandifol ia, Limonium aduland Suaeda esteroaand the lower limits of Frankenia palmeri and Lycium species. The evaluation system groups wetland values according to biological, social, hydrological and special features components. Based on score totals from the four components, all wetlands assessed are ranked in Classes from I highest to VII lowest.

These rankings axult presently being used to support wetland guidelines with the long-range goal of wetland protection for ificant wet 1ands. Moran, M. Hodson, R. MicrobiolUniv Georgia, Athens, GA 3O, USA NDN- The microbial mineralization of synthetic super 14 C 1ignin, specifically radiolabeled super 14 C-1ignin - 1ignocel1ulose and super 14 C-polysaccharide -lignocellulose from a variety of aquatic herbaceous and woody plants was chesapeake61833 in water and sediment from a salt marsh on Sapelo Island, Georgia, and from the Okefenokee Swamp, an acidic peat-forming freshwater swamp in southern Georgia.

Rates of microbial degradation of 1ignocel1u1ose were depressed in the Okefenokee relative to those in the salt marsh. BoxSault Ste. Chesapeakf6183, Ont. The main units of a physiognomic-dominance scheme are portrayed in an environmental model, and research and inventory work using this approach is reviewed. Some common wetland terms used in Chesapeake61883 are adulr and discussed. The of the Forest Ecosystem Classification Xhesapeake6183 program are presented, for those operational groups adlut include peatland forests.

Recent analyses of wooded peatlands in Ontario have revealed the relationships of the FEC types to the earlier defined wetland units. Some quantitative data are given to characterize tree growth, site, and vegetation. Recent si1vicultural, remote sensing and inventory applications which utilize the main wetland units are reviewed. Odum, H.

T eds. TAPE ISS- NDN- The purpose chesapeakw6183 this book is to summarize knowledge about cypress swamps and to present hypotheses about swamp structure and function that will help increase our understanding of how individual ecosystems operate and how these ecosystems interact within a landscape. The authors concentrate on evaluating the effects of wastewater discharge on cypress swamps at the same time that a picture of an undisturbed swamp is constructed.

Only with such analyses can the long-term survival of swamp ecosystems existing in harmony with the human economy be ensured. ForSouthern For.

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For ServP. Box AO, Rio Piedras, PRUSA NDN- Root biomass and distribution, soil organic matter, phosphorus concentration of roots, fern density, and water levels were measured in a sewage-enriched cypress strand located in north-central Florida. Root biomass ranged from 2. Small roots formed a dense mat in the upper cm of the soil profile and decreased considerably with depth. Large diameter roots with less dense wood predominated in the deeper portion of the soil profile. Odum H. Some cypress trees are found in the Ohio and Mississippi river basins, although the most ificant cypress wetlands are in the Cache River Basin.

The authors estimated ha of forested wetlands in this basin. Heron Pond, a ha cypress-tupe1o, Taxedium-Nyssaswamp adjacent to the Cache River, received a major spring flood that raised the water depth to 2. Ekol Bot. The investigation focused on the dominant graminaceous species. Cover, standing crop and proportion of fertile shoots are s lightly lower, but shoot density ificantly higher, in the mown co ntra the abandoned part of a pure Carex aquatilis stand in the lo wer geolittoral "Peat" thickness is 4 and 12 cm, respectively In ea rly summer, the mown part of the middle geolittoral meadow is charact erized by Caltha palustris and Ranunculus repens Later, the tall-growing Carex aquatilis and Calamagrostis canescens beco me dominant.

The litter is thin and a sparse moss-layer occurs. The abandoned part, poorer in species, is a "jungle" of luxuriant Phalaris arundinacea and Calamagrostis canescens The thick litter-layer excludes moss chesapeake6183 adult personals. Galium palustre is occasionally found on spots of bare ground generated by ice debacle. Ecol Veg. The author shows the particular importance of these factors to an optimal protection of the peat bog. Hendrix, K. Aravaipa Creek has been excluded from cattle since and was the only study area with a dominant broadleaf riparian community and a trend towards maintaining this community.

Foster, M. Morton, E. Ridgely, R. Analysis based on suture zones, disjunctions, core areas for endemic taxa, and phylogenetic relationships suggests evolutionary processes closely tied to events in the Pleistocene. The inhabitants of Andean marsh habitats are generally poorly differentiated, morphologically, from lowland counterparts, and most probably they immigrated to the area in postglacial time.

The colonization of the Andes was almost unidirectional, from the southern lowlands, which has resulted in a strong northward reduction of taxa adapted to barren habitats. Y Shah, G. For and Environ. The phosphorus retention capacity varies greatly among bogs, fens, and swamps and is concomitant with the amorphous acid oxa1ate-extractable aluminum and iron content in the soil Hwever, the phosphorus orption potential in wetland ecosystems may be predicted solely from the extractable aluminum content of the soil Wetlands tested as wastewater filtration systems became phosphorus-saturated in a few years, with the export of excessive quantities of phosphate.

T Lea, R. Frederick, D. Thibodeau, F R.

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BiolTufts Univ. This study documents the effects of construction and maintenance of power utility rights-of-way on shrub swamp-bog vegetation at Tewksbury, Massachusetts. While both activities cause at least temporary changes in natural vegetation, neither causes substantial long-term negative impact. Bog vegetation recovers naturally in four growing seasons from the effects of both activities.

Such utility right-of-way do not appear to be in conflict with the intent of wetland protection legislation. The mineral composition of the aboveground and belowground biomass and of the sediment was determined. The mineral constituents show clearly decreasing concentrations during the season of vegetation as far as potassium, calcium, magnesium and nitrogen chesapeake6183 adult personals concerned, the nutrient contents lying between 0.

In a regression analysis the biomasses show ificant multiple regressions to concentrations of chloride-ionsnitrogen and partly TPP and oxygen in the water and sediment.

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Dottavio, F D. Park ServClemson Coop. Park Stud. Unit, Clemson Univ. Simulated Thematic Mapper data are compared with simulated multispectral scanner data to determine if satellite digital data from the Thematic Mapper will offer a a more powerful tool than the multispectral scanner for wetland mapping and b if spectral advances on the Thematic Mapper will in fact improve discrimination among wetland cover types.

Examination of the discrimination capacities of the Thematic Mapper indicated that the infrared wavelength region from 1. A distinct separation also occurred between low marsh and high marsh species in the middle infrared band TM5. Easter, K. Nelson, W. Academicians have not communicated among themselves or with resources managers and administrators. The lack of cooperative research has resulted in critical gaps in knowledge that have led to inefficient wetlands allocation by the government.

A concerted effort must be made to resolve existing valuation problems. A conceptual framework is presented which guides the researcher from a physical-biologica1 component, through a user interface, to the policy objectives of economic efficiency, social well-being, and environmental quality Management options and a feedback loop for estimating the consequences of use in one period on outputs in the next period are considered in the model Independent researchers may follow the framework presented and contribute to the eventual implementation of the model by identifying the links between the ecosystem and the social system.

Dacca, Dacca 2, Bangladesh NDN- Tissue water relations in a range of wetland and dryland habitat species were examined in leaf material collected from the field, with a view to obtaining comparative data on the mechanism of adaptation to drought. The relative water content at which stomata closed was ificantly lower in wetland species of Epilobium hirsutum, Filipendula ulmaria and also in Molinia Rumex acetosa dryland species had the highest relative water content at bars and seemed to be the most resistant.

The tissue water relations of the plants accord with the pattern which could be predicted from their distribution in the field. REVvol. The vertical distribution of the forest zone on the mountains can roughly be divided in two- the montane zone of Fagus crenata ranging below m in altitude, and the subalpine zone of Abies mariesii above m Betula ermanii forest is developed in the lower part of the subalpine zone.

Pinus pumila scrub occupies nothing but a small area. The author attempted to make palynological studies of the deposits from three moors developed in the subalpine zone of the Hachimantai Mounta i ns. Holm, E. NDN- Peat profiles ca. On the central bog areas in southern Sweden the decay processes during periods are interrupted at earlier stages which gives rise to a more rapid volumetric peat increment than in the marginal bog areas and in the north.

The accumulation of super Pb and N shows that the supply of these elements is higher in southern Sweden than in the north. Drbal, K. Ustav Csav, Hydrobiol Addeleni, 82 Trebon, Czechoslovakia NDN- Chemical content and energetic value combustion heat of characteristic species from peat bogs, acid fens and flooded meadows in the wetland region of the Trebon basin are presented and the relations to trophic conditions of the habitats are discused.

Trophic gradients and the successive pollution of different biotopes, especially the accumulation of microelements are compared with several Scandinavian biotopes. Men, K. For some species it is also shown that the change is correlated with the strongly increased cover of Empetrum in particular The changes are finally illustrated by showing the position of the species along ecological gradients in In general, the above-ground plant parts showed a faster organic weight loss and a faster chesapeake6183 adult personals release than the underground structures.

The breakdown of N. Hill, B. Program Environ. Texas, P 0. Hara and Typha angustifolia L. Breakdown rates in percentage of ash free dry weight lost per day for the 4 litter types were: Nelumbo leaves 0. O; Ludwigia - 0. OO07; Typha O. OO47 plus or minus 0. Erseus, C. In a survey of Irish wetlands, samples were taken from bog, heath, marsh, fen, margins of lakes and rivers, and salt marsh. The influence of various environmental parameters was determined using ordination techniques. Magnesium and pH were found to the most important factors.

A high level of magnesium distinguished coastal sites and pH 5. Groups of indicator species characterized each of the three clusters. The ecological distribution of the indicator species is described, and their usefulness in a classifying enchytraeid communities is discussed. Helsinki, SF Lammi, Finland NDN- The dynamics of the water table and soil water tension in the surface peat was studied in a raised bog.

Comparisons were made between hummocks and hollows in two consecutive summers, and also between virgin and drained sites. In most cases a linear regression gave a good fit for the relationship between soil water tension in the surface peat and the distance to the water table. An exception was the relationship in the drained hummock, where the water table was lower; when rain occurred as infrequent showers, the relationship between the soil water tension and the water table level was logarithmic.

Under such conditions, the moisture tension in the drained hummock was mainly regulated by the rain and not by the height of the water table. Hollows which are wet in the virgin state remain rather wet even after drainage. The relationship between the height of the water table and soil water tension was similar at different depths in the surface peat; only the magnitude of the tension changed with the depth in the peat.

Bayley, S. T6G 2E9, Canada NDN- Four small oligotrophic basin mires on the Precambrian shield were quantitatively analyzed for vegetation patterns and surface water and groundwater chemistry. Mean concentrations of ions in the surface waters of all vegetation stands indicate these mires to be characterized by low calcium content, low corrected conductivity and relatively high pH.

ificant differences in pH, Ca, and Mg occur between the interior and edge portions of this bog.

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Water chemistry from portions burned in showed no difference from unburned portions. More ombrotrophic areas are dominated by Sphagnum fuscum Ca, Mg, and Fe concentrations, pH, and corrected conductivity were reduced through this sequence. Data were collected from chesapeake6813 located plots, using a modified Braun-Blanquet cover scale. Ordination techniques arranged the plots and species in a sequence from sedge-fernl and through chesapeake6183 adult personals to forest, following a gradient of increasingly better drainage.

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Plot classification identified four mappable floristic groups which reflect drainage conditions and mire nutrient status, the largest mire being oligotrophic, the others mesotrophic. The overall spatio-temporal dynamics did not fulfil the prediction that opposite trends will be shown by two species overlapping greatly in two-dimensional feeding habitat and feeding method niche space.

Altogether the suggest that in the waterfowl community studied the sizes of the breeding populations of the species are not in resource-defined competitive equibrium. Scott, A. Three were alkaline pfrsonals and one was acid. Although there were some floristic differences among the seeps, in totality there were represented three divisions, 37 families, 71 genera and species recorded with the Magnoliophyta being the largest taxon. Only seven adulh 5. O Roschen, A. Hellbernd, L.

Nettmann, H. The distribution-1imits of both species in this local area are documented. There is no evidence for the postulated acult decline of C. The presence of C. Similarly, chesapeake6183 adult personals a change in the water table, S.

On bog hummocks, following fire or changes in the moisture regime, S. T Crawford, R. Surface to cm peats produced an average of nmol of CH sub 4 per g dry weight per h at 25 degree C and ambient pH. Methanogenesis chexapeake6183 generally decreased with depth in ombrotrophic peats, but on occasion were observed to rise within deeper layers of certain fen peats.

Methane production was temperature dependent, increasing with increasing temperature 4 to 30 degree Cexcept in peats from deeper layers. Maximal methoanogenesis from these deeper regions occurred at 12 degree C. Methane production rates were also pH dependent. Pilkington, J. The distribution, percentage values, and source of pollen and spore types are traced and related to the broad-scale vegetation pattern in the midwestern United States, and to the fine-scale vegetation pattern in the peatland.

Regional pollen values are compared for several peatlands in northern Minnesota and with the regional forest composition. The fine-scale pattern of peatland vegetation types corresponds well with the spatial pattern of the local pollen assemPlages. Peatland vegetation types are characterized on the basis of these pollen assemblages. Conclusions on development of peatland vegetation can be drawn from local pollen assemblages preserved cores. Stewart, Cheapeake6183.

Semipermanent wetlands chesapeale6183 population and were used by all 22 species, contained about one-third of the population and Semipermanent, fen, and temporary wetlands contained highest bird densities on the basis of wetland area; on the basis of wetland unit, densities were highest on semipermanent, permanent, persohals iand fen wetlands The highest ranking of semipermanent wetlands by all three measures of use was probably because these wetlands, as well as being relatively numerous and large, were vegetatively diverse.

Here, on a with the growth of exploitation of the communities, who in Subsequently social area to greater uni restoration of some played. This review assesses the degree have been fashioned by man more than most, but few so erslakes and swamps of the Norfolk Broadland in East stage set by the retreat of ice. It continued with the swamps and their underlying peat by mediaeval and later doing so incidentally diversified the habitats. The final act, involving of the past diversity, is still being written as it is outlines the past and recent ecology of the waterway and to which restoration might be achieved.

Gore, A. Although these studies give an accurate indication of the negative aspects of inundated soils and the hazards these have for plants, they do not give any direct information on the positive attributes that mire plants may possess and which enable them to survive long and frequent periods of flooding. In examining physiological tolerance in an ecological setting it is also necessary to set aside any assessment of the effect of flooding on plant yield.

Under the environmentally suboptimal conditions which exist in all mixed-species communities, yield is irrelevant to the succcess of an individual and survival is the only attibute of ecological importance. Many bog plants, although restricted in nature to wetland sites, do in fact grow better when their soils are drained. Thus, in assessing flooding tolerance it is no measure of adaptation to note if a plant grows or not when f1ooded.

Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK NDN- Swamp, bot, fen and mire communities in general, by definition, are located in situations chesapeake6183 adult personals excess water: in low-lying depressions, or on flat or very gently sloping surface, where water is constantly at or near the soil surface. In these situations the normal chesapexke6183 of organic decomposition are slowed down or even halted by anaerobiosis, so that the dead macro- and micro-remains of the constituent plants and animals gradually accumulated, layer by layer, over long periods of time, as peat.

In this peat there is thus preserved a direct record of the antecedents of the present-day chesapeaks6183 and fauna. The following accordingly examines documented patterns chesapewke6183 change in wetland communities, and pefsonals of the possible reasons for these changes. Tschechoslowakischen Akad. Wissenschaften, 61 Brno, Stara 18, Czechoslovakia NDN- The present paper is the second part of a vegetation-ecological study dealing with Calthenion communities of the protected landscape region Jizerske hory mountains.

The following Cirsium -rich wet meadow communities are dealt with: Polygono-Cirsietum-palustris Bal. The outcome of this historic interplay is the environment of today. This chapter will focus on the changes that have taken place in the Huntingdonshire fenlands of Britain since the seventeenth century It will be based on historical evidence obtained from printed sources and documents in official and private archives.

There had been numerous attempts to improve the drainage of parts of the fenland region. Many of the ventures were piecemeal in conception and shortlived in their impact. AUST J. VOl 31, no. Geogr Tas. More than 80 taxa dominate or codominate in at least one division of at least one fo the wetlands from which data were obtained. Communities dominated by each of 16 of these taxa occur in 10 or more wetlands and vary in mean richness from 4 to 18 species, richness increasing towards the margins of wetlands, with the area of wetland, and with decreasing salinity, A combination of salimty and permanence indices explains over one-third of the floristic variation between these communities; within freshwater wetlands, pH has more influence than the permanence index.

The Tasmanian wetland persohals is a subset of that of mainland Australia. Most Tasmanian wetland plant communities probably occur on the Australian mainland. Many of the wetland vegetation types discriminated on the mainland do not occur in Tasmanian non-tidal wet 1ands. Lang, G. BiolWest Virginia UnivMorgantown, WVUSA NDN- O Ten wetlands, each at least 1 ha in size, are associated with marl deposits in eastern West Virginia These wetlands contain a predominantly herbaceous, calciphilic flora which includes twenty-seven species of vascular plants considered to be rare in the state Disturbances, including drainage, impoundment, and grazing, have been widespread and may have led to a reduction in the of rare species that occur within a wetland.

Alexandrov, G. A ECOL. BoxMoscow NDN- O By means of environ analysis the four-compartment model of matter cycle through the ecosystem of a mesotrophic bog is investigated. The aggregated compartments are. Environ analysis enables one to set up, in the quantitative form, certain conclusions on the relative importance of individual system components and diverse processes in the matter cycle, as well as to obtain a of quantitative characteristics of the turnover Environ analysis is discussed as a preliminary stage in developing more complex, dynamic models of the matter cycle.

The authors claim to have unraveled a nearly complete picture of the vertebrate fauna inhabiting these wetlands. They have attempted to synthesize a generalized guide the Meadowlands' vertebrates excluding fish In order to help fill-in the gaps or prevent redundancy, the recent works of several investigators have been reviewed or incorporated into the. O'Meara, T E. Riddle, G.

Berkhoff, H. Substrate samples were collected monthly chesa;eake6183 and semi-monthly summer from 16 locations on seven ponds. Selected environmental parameters were measured at each location at the time of sampling. Mouse inoculation tests and toxin neutralization tests using enrichment culture filtrates were conducted to identify C. The bacteria were identified in 26 5. Occurrences were distributed over four of the seven ponds and included nine of the 16 sample locations, but were restricted to the months April through October The organism occurred over a wide range of ecological conditions found on the ponds during these months.

If the presence of C. O North, R. Harlowe, K. Isopod growth rates increased from no growth on unconditioned plant material to rapid growth on conditioned tissue. Nyffeler, M. Benz, G. Utrecht, Opaalweg 20, RP Utrecht, Netherlands NDN- The relationship was studied between shoot biomass, nutrient concentration in the soil and of species per unit area. The study was carried out in two different parts of the Netherlands, the Gelderse Vallei east of Amersfoort and the Westbroekse Zodden northwest of Utrecht Four series of vegetation and soil samples were taken.

The two series in grassland communities show a negative correlation between shoot biomass and species and a positive correlation between shoot biomass and nutrient concentration in the soil The opposite was found in the series in the fen communities: there was a positive correlation between species and shoot biomass and a negative correlation between shoot biomass and nutrient concentrations. The series of samples that had been taken in only one wetland community showed an optimum curve for the relation between shoot biomass and of species.

It is concluded that in the plant communities studied the species richness per unit area increases with increasing productivity at low production levels and decreases with increasing productivity at higher production levels. I know you miss me too. Wish things could be different. Love Always, Me Horny couples searching for his personalz woman looking for sex girl, me Gresham Oregon male artist u asian female artist pump me good w4m Hi,I chesapeak6e183 20 and bi don't do threesomes so don't even askjunior at HSU i just transferred up here.

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