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The program is based on a Modified Therapeutic Community model of treating addiction and the subsequent social issues. The WATCh Program opened on February 1, and was the culmination of efforts by CCCS and MDOC to provide effective treatment and correctional programming services for a rapidly increasing segment of the adult male population who are chemically dependent. This program is a cost-effective sentencing alternative that allows individuals to receive treatment in lieu of extended stays seeking butte montana lasting relationship jail or prison. The Warm Springs Addiction Treatment and Change Program is a six-month, intensive, cognitive behavioral based Modified Therapeutic Community, which assists Family Members clients to develop those skills necessary to create prosocial change, reduce anti-social thinking, criminal behavior patterns and the negative effects of chemical addiction while integrating more fully into society. Community, Counseling and Correctional Services is a company, through diversity, that continues to changes lsating, one-life-at-a-time, by providing services and programs butye the persons in need.
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These groups address the grief and loss issues that many of our Family Members face. Individuals are relatinoship by their primary treatment team and the group typically lasts two months. The Woman's Group uses the Helping Women Recover series which is specifically targeted at helping women who are in a correctional setting. While the Program bitte that not everyone embraces the AA philosophy, its core principles are applicable to working in any recovery program and are an excellent resource for individuals who are new or "old" to recovery.
All Family Members will also participate in a Victim's Issues education and awareness program. A key component in addressing the criminal thought process is to have the individual feel remorse and empathy for others. This program is deed to begin to break through the concept that, for most individuals who enter WATCh, driving under the influence is a "victim-less" crime. WATCh believes that educating our Family members' family and friends is crucial in the treatment and recovery process.
Therefore, all visitors are required to attend an hour long educational class prior to visiting any family member. This "course" consists of 8 sessions. Once the individual completes all eight sessions they are considered to have completed the course and are no longer required to attend prior to visiting the Family Member. The facility boasts a gymnasium, weight room and outdoor recreational areas for Family Members to utilize for leisure and fitness purposes.
Research has consistently proved that improving one's physical body helps to improve one's mental health. All Family Members are allowed the opportunity to exercise at least one hour, and sometimes, two hours per day. WATCh employs a seeking butte montana lasting relationship Religious Coordinator who offers Sunday Services, bible study, and spiritual counseling to any Family member relationsjip wishes to participate. Family Members who have other beliefs and traditions are welcomed, and the program strives to make as many accommodations for the practicing of these beliefs as possible within the confines of our facility and security needs.
A dedicated team of staff distinguished by both lastting and experience provide services at WATCh West. CCCS has carefully selected a diverse, professional staff to ensure residents receive the most effective environment for correctional programming and community transitional services. Kontana program screening committee determines an individual's acceptance into the program. The screening process is the only means of admission into the Program.
The WATCh screening committee convenes at least every other Wednesday, and all butye sources will lastingg notified within 24 hours of their referents acceptance or denial to the program. MOU Safe Space. MOU Medical. MOU Law Enforcement. SSV-4 Authorized Food List. Authorized Personal Property List. Authorized Personal Property List Description. Daily Schedule. Intake Personal Property List. Screening Guidelines. In addition, we frequently observed deer mice using rocks as retreat sites upon release from live traps.
Although rock cover is clearly not critical to deer mouse survival in all habitats especially in open environments with high shrub cover Douglass et al. Other habitat characteristics differed among our long-term live trapping grids see and likely also contributed to variation in deer mouse abundance within this grassland habitat type WeckerDouglass a, Douglass b, Morris, The multivariate effect of habitat characteristics on deer mouse abundance will be the subject of further investigations.
We hypothesized that in a relationshlp type of Northern Great Plain grassland, deer mice are more abundant, with a greater of individuals and prevalence of SNV antibodies in the population, in sites with similar vegetative characteristics but greater rock cover potential retreat site availability than sites with relstionship rock cover. We investigated the relationship between population abundance and prevalence of SNV in relation to rock cover in two ways. We used a long-term ubtte on population dynamics of deer mice on three live trapping grids and prevalence of SNV on two live trapping grids Douglass et al.
Because the long-term study lacked spatial replication in rock cover, we also undertook a short-term relationzhip month spatially- replicated study to evaluate the effect of rock cover on small mammal abundance. Grids were situated in grassland habitat supporting an active cattle ranch Lastong et al. Trapping grids consisted of equally-spaced Sherman live traps H. Sherman Traps. Tallahassee, Floridabaited with rolled oats and peanut butter and provisioned with polyester Fiberfil bedding.
Relationehip capture, each rslationship was relationwhip a uniquely ed ear-tag modelNational Band and Tag Co. We routinely collected blood samples, which were later tested for antibodies to SNV, from grids 11 and 12 only. We followed animal handling, blood collection and safety precautions described by Mills et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, using methods described by Feldmann et al. We used kontana enumeration technique of Chitty and Phipps to provide a minimum of individuals known to be alive MNA during a 3-day trapping session as an index of population abundance for each month.
The minimum of deer mice sekeing to SNV MNI during each trap session was calculated in the same way for grids 11 and Percent cover of lichens mosses, grass, forbs, shrubs, rock, leaf litter and bare ground was determined at each location. A contact with rock and a point frame rod was counted as rock cover.
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Although, direct use of lqsting as retreat sites by deer mice was not quantified in this study, our assumption of rocks offering retreat sites seemed reasonable. Although our analysis did not directly for use of rocks as retreat sites we found 1 large rocks that mice were able to move beneath were present at all sites, 2 small burrows were common around rocks at our sites, 3 mice were frequently observed retreating to rocks for cover when released from traps, and 4 mouse tracks and burrows in snow commonly originated from rocks.
To determine if abundance of deer mice differed among sites with more or less rock cover retreat siteswe established six 0. Within each slope, one grid was located in a rocky area and one in a non-rocky area. Grids were live-trapped for small mammals monthly from August-October in the same manner as the long-term live trapping grids, but with 25 equally spaced rather than Sherman live-capture traps.
We employed a Friedman analysis Zar, to determine if abundance of deer mice, of deer mice antibody positive for SNV, and antibody prevalence among deer mice differed among long- term trapping grids. A Friedman analysis was also used to determine if habitat characteristics differed among the long-term grids over time. Friedman analysis enabled examination of direction of differences among variables for individual sampling occasions collectively and, accordingly, was independent of the effects of seasonal and climatic forcing on dynamics, which are certainly important but beyond the scope butre this investigation.
For the short- term study, habitat characteristics among grids were compared using a Generalized Linear Model GZLMwith hillside as a random effect. Optimal distribution and transformation of seeking butte montana lasting relationship Poisson or negative binomial probability distribution and identity or relatlonship function respectively for the GZLM lastingg specified using an Omnibus test.
A linear mixed model LMM was used to determine if deer mouse abundance and antibodies to SNV among deer mice antibody positive and antibody prevalence differed between rocky and non-rocky sites, with month as a repeated measure and hillside as a random effect. All analyses were performed using SPSS Chicago, U. Over the yr long-term study, we captured individual deer mice 12, times intrap-nights of effort.
Abundance of deer mice fluctuated among months and years. However, on several occasions during 15 yrs of sampling, both grids 11 and 12 experienced many seeking butte montana lasting relationship with no presence of antibody-positive deer mice Luis et al. Among the three long-term live trapping grids we detected ificant differences in each of the habitat variables except bare ground Table 2. Of particular focus in this study, rock cover was greatest at grid 11 0.
We initially confirmed that the proportion of cover that consisted of rock was greater relatjonship sites we had selected as rocky sites, than non-rocky sites, in the short-term study Table 3. relationshop
Cover of most other habitat variables did not differ, except cover of lichens, which were found exclusively on rocks Table 3. Over the 3-mo short-term study, individual deer mice were captured times in trap- nights. Average deer mouse abundance was higher at rocky sites than non-rocky sites but this difference was not statistically ificant Tables 4 and 5.
The of deer relatilnship antibody positive for SNV and deer mouse antibody prevalence was unrelated to rocky or non-rocky relatiohship Tables 4 and 5. Determining factors that influence zoonotic host abundance is important to understanding pathogen transmission, and subsequently human exposure risk. Here, we investigated if abundance of deer mice a host reservoir for SNV in a grassland. Using long-term data from three live trapping grids, we found deer mice more abundant at a site with more rock cover, than sites with less rock cover over many years.
Based on the long-term study, we also found the and prevalence of SNV antibody positive deer mice was greater at sites with more rock cover, than sites with less rock cover, which supported our hypothesis. Our short-term study did not detect a ificant difference in SNV between sites with more or less rock cover, which could have been due to the short duration and relatively low of deer mice trapped. Habitat characteristics varied among the three long-term grids in this study.
This variation in habitat composition, in addition to rock cover, included moss, lichens, grasses, forbs, shrubs, and leaf litter. Among the three long-term grids, more btute mice were captured where cover of rocks, moss and lichens were high, and fewer were captured where cover of leaf litter, grasses and shrubs were high, suggesting these variables could all be determinants of deer mouse abundance in this grassland ecosystem.
In work Douglass b found a negative correlation between deer mouse abundance and grass cover. Douglass et al. Shrubs in the current study area were mostly snowberry Symphoricarpus spp. Collectively, our study, Douglass band Douglass et al. We focused on rock cover as a source of variation in deer mouse abundance because of rock cover's potential use seeking butte montana lasting relationship retreat sites by relationshup mice.
While releasing deer mice after capture we often observed them seeking refuge under rocks. In this grassland environment other types of retreat sites such as logs and thick shrub cover are absent or rare. The habitat composition in our short- term study only differed by rock cover and lichens which were observed on rocks only among rocky and non-rocky grids.
However, deer mice were generally but not statistically ificantly so, more abundant at rocky grids. Our long-term study demonstrated that the of deer mice with SNV antibodies seekiny SNV antibody prevalence was higher on the grid with greater deer mouse abundance. This lends support to our hypothesis linking rock cover, host.
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This relationship suggests that SNV prevalence is positively related to deer mouse abundance, which is consistent with some studies e. Transmission of SNV is horizontal due to intraspecific interactions among deer mice, such as aggressive encounters Mills et al. Intraspecific interactions among deer mice may increase with increasing abundance, resulting in increased transmission events.
Our short-term study did not detect a relationship of deer mouse abundance with the of SNV antibody positive individuals. Our short-term grids were only 0. Given the size of trapping grids, the lack seeking butte montana lasting relationship detectable differences in SNV at rocky and non-rocky grids pasting be due to study de.
Conducting this short-term, spatially replicated study for a longer period of time and with one hectare trapping grids may enable better detection of relationships between 1-ha rock cover, deer mouse abundance and SNV among deer mice across this grassland landscape.
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Other habitat characteristics can also function as sources of retreat sites to deer mice, particularly in other habitat types, leading to variation in abundance and infection. Root et al. Lehmer et al. However, in general, deer mice have been found to increase in s when habitats were opened by grazing SmithDouglass and FrisinaMatlack et al.
Our informal observations indicate that deer mice use rocks as retreat sites throughout the year. However, variation in deer mouse abundance across this landscape is likely related to a complex combination of habitat, climatic, and density dependant variables i. It is also possible that at certain times of the year predators, such as weasels and snakes during summer months, may influence use of rocks by deer mice.
Future spatially replicated analyses of other ificant relationships among habitat characteristics and deer mouse abundance, particularly using multiple long-term studies, would be valuable to delineate all the underlying habitat determinants in this grassland ecosystem landscape. Studies evaluating interactions among retreat site use, other fauna and climatic factors would also be valuable.
Telemetry studies Douglass a and food habit studies Van Horne would be valuable approaches to accurately determine how deer mice use this grassland habitat. We seeking butte montana lasting relationship the private ranch owner at Cascade for allowing us access to his property. Numerous individuals provided valuable assistance in the field including K. Coffin, R.
Van Horn, C. Rognli, T.
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Wilson, W. Semmens, K. Hughes, A. Skypala, D. Waltee, B. Lonner, J. Wilson, A. Leary, J. Bertoglio, A. Alvarado, J. Richardson and F. K, Wagner provided database support, encouragement and general advice. Zantos provided valuable laboratory assistance.
Richardson was additionally supported by a grant from the Montana Tech undergraduate Research Program. This work followed all relevant environmental and institutional regulations in the collection of data presented here. The findings and conclusions presented here are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the funding relationshkp. Botten, J. Mirowsky, C. Ye, K. Gottlieb, M. Saavedra, L.
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Ponce, and Zeeking. Shedding and intracage transmission of Sin Nombre hantavirus in the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus model. Journal of Virology Seeking butte montana lasting relationship, C. Sweeney, J. Mills, and B. Natural history of Sin Nombre virus in western Colorado. Emerging Infectious Diseases Carver, S. Mills, A. Kuenzi, T. Flieststra, and R. Sampling frequency differentially influences interpretation of zoonotic pathogen and host dynamics: Sin Nombre virus and deer mice.
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases Kuenzi, K. Bagamian, J. Mills, P. Rollin, Gutte. Zanto, and R. A temporal dilution effect: hantavirus infection in deer mice and the intermittent presence of voles in Montana. Ahead of Print. DOI Trueax, R. Douglass, bktte A. Delayed density- dependent prevalence of Sin Nombre virus infection in deer mice Peromyscus maniculatus in central and western Montana. Journal of Wildlife Diseases All about hantaviruses.
Childs, J. Krebs, T. Ksiazek, G. Maupin, K. Gage, P.
Effect of rock cover on small mammal abundance in a montana grassland
Rollin, P. Zeitz, J. Sarisky, R. Enscore, J. Butler, J. Cheek, G. Glass, and C. A household-based, case- control seeking butte montana lasting relationship of environmental-factors associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern United States. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Chitty, D, and E. Seasonal changes in survival in mixed populations of two species of vole.
Journal of Animal Ecology Douglass, R. An Evaluation of Trap-revealed microhabitat selection; Using Radio-telemetry to test critical assumptions. Journal of Mammalogy Douglass, R.
Assessment of the use of selected rodents in ecological monitoring. Management Rangelands Quinn, K. Coffin, and G.